Essays

Wanneer de staat in naam der mensheid zijn politieke vijand wil bestrijden, dan is dat geen oorlog van de mensheid, maar een oorlog waarvoor een bepaalde staat tegenover een oorlogsvijand een universeel begrip probeert ‘bezet’ te houden, zoals men ook vrede, gerechtigheid, vooruitgang, en civilisatie misbruiken kan, om het voor zich te kunnen opeisen en het de vijand te kunnen ontzeggen. ‘Mensheid’ is een bijzonder goed bruikbaar ideologisch instrument...”

Carl Schmitt





Heerszucht

Oorlog en vrede

Boekenbespreking

Persons will look upon the body as a machine made by the hands of God, which is incomparably better arranged, and adequate to movements more admirable than is any machine of human invention. And here I specially stayed to show that, were there such machines exactly resembling organs and outward form an ape or any other irrational animal, we could have no means of knowing that they were in any respect of a different nature from these animals; but if there were machines bearing the image of our bodies, and capable of imitating our actions as far as it is morally possible, there would still remain two most certain tests whereby to know that they were not therefore really men. Of these the first is that they could never use words or other signs arranged in such a manner as is competent to us in order to declare our thoughts to others: for we may easily conceive a machine to be so constructed that it emits vocables, and even that it emits some correspondent to the action upon it of external objects which cause a change in its organs; for example, if touched in a particular place it may demand what we wish to say to it; if in another it may cry out that it is hurt, and such like; but not that it should arrange them variously so as appositely to reply to what is said in its presence, as men of the lowest grade of intellect can do. The second test is, that although such machines might execute many things with equal or perhaps greater perfection than any of us, they would, without doubt, fail in certain others from which it could be discovered that they did not act from knowledge, but solely from the disposition of their organs: for while reason is an universal instrument that is alike available on every occasion, these organs, on the contrary, need a particular arrangement for each particular action; whence it must be morally impossible that there should exist in any machine a diversity of organs sufficient to enable it to act in all the occurrences of life, in the way in which our reason enables us to act. Again, by means of these two tests we may likewise know the difference between men and brutes. For it is highly deserving of remark, that there are no men so dull and stupid, not even idiots, as to be incapable of joining together different words, and thereby constructing a declaration by which to make their thoughts understood; and that on the other hand, there is no other animal, however perfect or happily circumstanced, which can do the like. Nor does this inability arise from want of organs: for we observe that magpies and parrots can utter words like ourselves, and are yet unable to speak as we do, that is, so as to show that they understand what they say; in place of which men born deaf and dumb, and thus not less, but rather more than the brutes, destitute of the organs which others use in speaking, are in the habit of spontaneously inventing certain signs by which they discover their thoughts to those who, being usually in their company, have leisure to learn their language. And this proves not only that the brutes have less reason than man, but that they have none at all: for we see that very little is required to enable a person to speak; and since a certain inequality of capacity is observable among animals of the same species, as well as among men, and since some are more capable of being instructed than others, it is incredible that the most perfect ape or parrot of its species, should not in this be equal to the most stupid infant of its kind or at least to one that was crack-brained, unless the soul of brutes were of a nature wholly different from ours. And we ought not to confound speech with the natural movements which indicate the passions, and can be imitated by machines as well as manifested by animals; nor must it be thought with certain of the ancients, that the brutes speak, although we do not understand their language. For if such were the case, since they are endowed with many organs analogous to ours, they could as easily communicate their thoughts to us as to their fellows. It is also very worthy of remark, that, though there are many animals which manifest more industry than we in certain of their actions, the same animals are yet observed to show none at all in many others: so that the circumstance that they do better than we does not prove that they are endowed with mind, for it would thence follow that they possessed greater reason than any of us, and could surpass us in all things; on the contrary, it rather proves that they are destitute of reason, and that it is nature which acts in them according to the disposition of their organs: thus it is seen, that a clock composed only of wheels and weights can number the hours and measure time more exactly than we with all our skin.

Rene Descartes uit deel V van A Discourse on Method

Martha Nussbaum – Een waardig bestaan: Over dierenrechten

Frans de Waal – Een tijd voor empathie



Artwork

Voorne Putten in B2

Fables

De tegenwoordige hemelen en de aarde zijn door hetzelfde woord als een schat weggelegd, ten vure bewaard tegen de dag van het oordeel en van de ondergang van de goddeloze mensen. 2Petrus 3:7

Terminator-Cab-Driver (2013)

Crazy Chick (2013)

What Are You Looking For? (2013)

Disco (date unknown)

Dalbello (1988)

Vale (1985)

White Feathers (1984)

Wish You Were Here (1984)

Young Bowie (1981)

Selfportrait (1981)

Orgasm (date unknown)













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